Veterinary acupuncture can be used to stimulate nerve activity, increase circulation, relieve pain and can be used to treat a wide array of conditions.
Q: What is acupuncture?
Acupuncture may be defined as the insertion of needles into specific points on the body to cause a desired healing effect. This technique has been used in veterinary practice in China for at least 3000 years to treat many ailments.
The Chinese also use acupuncture as preventive medicine against such problems as founder and colic in horses. Acupuncture is used all over the world, either by itself or in conjunction with conventional medicine, to treat a wide variety of maladies in every species of domestic and exotic animals. Modern veterinary acupuncturists use solid needles, hypodermic needles, bleeding needles, electricity, heat, massage, light therapy and low power lasers to stimulate acupuncture points.
Acupuncture is not a cure-all, but can work very well when it is indicated.
Q: For which conditions is acupuncture indicated?
Acupuncture is indicated mainly for functional problems such as those that involve paralysis, noninfectious inflammation (such as allergies), and pain. For small animals, the following are some of the general conditions which may be treated with acupuncture:
- Musculoskeletal problems, such as arthritis or vertebral disc pathology
- Skin problems, such as lick granuloma
- Respiratory problems, such as feline asthma
- Gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea
- Selected reproductive problems
For large animals, acupuncture is again commonly used for functional problems. Some of the general conditions where it might be applied are the following:
- Musculoskeletal problems, such as sore backs or downer cow syndrome
- Nervous system problems, such as facial nerve paralysis
- Skin problems, such as allergic dermatitis
- Respiratory problems, such as heaves and “Bleeders”
- Gastrointestinal problems, such as nonsurgical colic
- Selected reproductive disorders
In addition, regular acupuncture treatment can treat minor sports injuries as they occur and help to keep muscles and tendons resistant to injury. World-class professional and amateur athletes often use acupuncture as a routine part of their training. If your animals are involved in any athletic endeavor, such as racing, jumping, or showing, acupuncture can help keep them in top physical condition.
Q: How does acupuncture work?
According to ancient Chinese medical philosophy, disease is the result of an imbalance of energy in the body. Acupuncture is believed to balance this energy and, thereby, assist the body to heal disease.
In Western terms, acupuncture can assist the body to heal itself by affecting certain physiological changes. For example, acupuncture can stimulate nerves, increase blood circulation, relieve muscle spasm, and cause the release of hormones, such as endorphins (one of the body’s pain control chemicals) and cortisol (a natural steroid). Although many of acupuncture’s physiological effects have been studied, many more are still unknown. Further research must be done to discover all of acupuncture’s effects and its proper uses in veterinary medicine.
Q: Is acupuncture painful?
For small animals, the insertion of acupuncture needles is virtually painless. The larger needles necessary for large animals may cause some pain as the needle passes through the skin. In all animals, once the needles are in place, there should be no pain. Because there is no needle, laser and light therapy acupuncture stimulation causes no pain. Most animals become very relaxed and may even become sleepy. Nevertheless, acupuncture treatment may cause some sensation, presumed to be those such as tingles, cramps, or numbness which can occur in humans and which may be uncomfortable to some animals.
Q: Is acupuncture safe for animals?
Acupuncture is one of the safest forms of medical treatment for animals when it is administered by a properly trained veterinarian. Side effects of acupuncture are rare, but they do exist. An animal’s condition may seem worse for up to 48 hours after a treatment. Other animals may become sleepy or lethargic for 24 hours after acupuncture. These effects are an indication that some physiological changes are developing, and they are most often followed by an improvement in the animal’s condition.
Q: How long do acupuncture treatments last and how often are they given?
The length and frequency of acupuncture treatments depends on the condition of the patient and the method of stimulation that is used by the veterinary acupuncturist. Stimulation of an individual acupuncture point may take as little as 10 seconds or as much as 30 minutes. A simple acute problem, such as a sprain, may require only one treatment, whereas more severe or chronic ailments may need several or several dozen treatments.
When multiple treatments are necessary, they usually begin intensively and are tapered to maximum efficiency. Patients often start with 1-3 treatments per week for 4-6 weeks. A positive response is usually seen after the first to third treatments. Once a maximum positive response is achieved (usually after 4-8 treatments), treatments are tapered off so that the greatest amount of symptom free time elapses between them. Many animals with chronic conditions can taper off to 2-4 treatments per year.
Animals undergoing athletic training can benefit from acupuncture as often as twice a week to once a month. The frequency depends on the intensity of the training and the condition of the athlete.
Q: How should I choose an acupuncturist for my animals?
There are two important criteria you should look for in a veterinary acupuncturist:
- Your veterinary acupuncturist must be a licensed veterinarian.
- Your veterinary acupuncturist should have formal training in the practice of acupuncture for animals. (For example, the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society offers an accredited certification program for veterinary acupuncturists.)
In most countries, states, and provinces, veterinary acupuncture is considered a surgical procedure that only licensed veterinarians may legally administer to animals. A veterinarian is in the best position to diagnose an animal’s health problem and then to determine whether an animal is likely to benefit from an acupuncture treatment, or whether its problem requires chemical, surgical, or no intervention. In the USA, the American Veterinary Medical Association considers veterinary acupuncture a valid modality within the practice of veterinary medicine and surgery, but extensive educational programs should be undertaken before a veterinarian is considered competent to practice acupuncture. Ask your veterinarian about their training. The more your veterinarian knows about the traditional Chinese philosophies and Western scientific bases for acupuncture, the more sure you can be that your animals will be treated properly.
Altman, S.; An Introduction to Acupuncture for Animals, (1981)
American Journal of Acupuncture, (1973-) Published quarterly from 1840
Forty-First Avenue-Suite 102, P.O. Box 610, Capitola, CA 95010, USA
Australian Veterinary Acupuncture Newsletter, c/o 19 Iluka Avenue, Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia
Centre de Documentation du Gera, 192 Chemin des Cedres, F-83130 La Garde, France.
Baxter, G. David; Therapeutic Lasers, Theory and Practice, Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York, NY 10011, USA, (1994).
Bossy, Jean; Essai Bibliographique Sur L’Acupuncture. Scientia Orientalis No. 15 (1977) Published by Universit Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (1979).
Cheng Xinnong, ed.’ Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Foreign Languages Press, Beiging, PRC, 1987.
Gilchrist, D.; Manual of Acupuncture for small animals. (1981).
International Journal on Veterinary Acupuncture, (1990-)
published by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society.
Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutic Research, Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NJ 10523, USA
Janssens, L.A.A.; Acupuncture Points and Meridians in the Dog. Distributed by IVAS.
Janssens, L.A.A.; Some Aspects of Small Animal Acupuncture, distributed by
SATAS-Green Line Medical Books, P.O. Box 14, B-1080 Brussssels 8, Belgium, and also by IVAS.
Kaptchuk, Ted J.; The Web That Has No Weaver, Congdon and Weed, Inc., New York, NY, USA (1983).
Klide, A.M. and Kung, S.H.; Veterinary Acupuncture. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A. (1977) or Pendragon Pressss, Lizard Town, Helston, South Conwall, England.
Kothbauer, O. and Meng, A.; Grundlagen Der Veterinar Akupunktur, Verlag Welsemuhl, Wels, (1983) (German).
Lin, J.H. and Rogers, P.A.M.; Acupuncture Effects on the Body’s Defense System; Veterinary Review. Vet. Bulletin 50, 630-640, 1980.
Maciocia, Giovanni; The Foundations of Chinese Medicine, Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York, NY, USA (1989).
Proceedings of the International Veterinary Acupuncture Annual Conferences on Veterinary Acupuncture. Published by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society. (only available from the 8th Annual Conference on).
Rogers, P.A.M. and Bossy, J.; Activation of the Defense Systems of the Body in Animals.